1018 – Byzantine general Eustathios Daphnomeles blinds and captures Ibatzes of Bulgaria by a ruse, thereby ending Bulgarian resistance against Emperor Basil II's conquest of Bulgaria.
( Ibatzes, believing that Daphnomeles would not have come alone unless he intended to forge an alliance against Basil, retreated with the strategos to a secluded wooded glade in the gardens for a private discussion. There, Daphnomeles and his two hidden associates sprang on the Bulgarian general, blinded him and carried him to the upper story of the palace, through the assembled crowds who were too stunned to react. When the Bulgarians recovered, they gathered underneath the building crying for revenge. Daphnomeles, however, addressed them and managed to convince them of the futility of further resistance, and to lay down their arms and seek the emperor's pardon)
- 1281 – Mongol invasion of Japan: The Mongolian fleet of Kublai Khan is destroyed by a "divine wind" for the second time in the Battle of Kōan.
- 1248 – The foundation stone of Cologne Cathedral, built to house the relics of the Three Wise Men, is laid. (Construction is eventually completed in 1880.)
- 1534 – Saint Ignatius of Loyola and six classmates take initial vows, leading to the creation of the Society of Jesus in September 1540.
- 1843 – The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, Hawaii is dedicated. Now the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, it is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States.
- 1914 – A male servant of American architect Frank Lloyd Wright sets fire to the living quarters of the architect's Wisconsin home, Taliesin, murders seven people and burns the living quarters to the ground.
- 1935 – Will Rogers and Wiley Post are killed after their aircraft develops engine problems during takeoff in Barrow, Alaska.
- 1941 – Corporal Josef Jakobs is executed by firing squad at the Tower of London at 7:12am, making him the last person to be executed at the Tower for treason.
- 1945 – World War II: Japan surrenders to end the war.
- 1947 – India gains Independence from the British Indian Empire and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.
- 1948 – The Republic of Korea is established south of the 38th parallel north.
- 1960 – Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent from France.
- 1965 – The Beatles play to nearly 60,000 fans at Shea Stadium in New York City, in an event later seen as marking the birth of stadium rock.
- 1969 – The Woodstock Music and Art Festival opens.
- 1971 – Bahrain gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1975 – Bangladesh's founder Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is killed along with most members of his family during a military coup.
- 2007 – An 8.0-magnitude earthquake off the Pacific coast devastates Ica and various regions of Peru killing 514 and injuring 1,090.