Eau de Cologne or simply cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser, "Water of Cologne") is a perfume originating from Cologne, Germany. Originally mixed by Italian-born Johann Maria Farina in 1709, it has since come to be a generic term for scented formulations in typical concentration of 2%–5% essential oils or a blend of extracts, alcohol, and water. In a base of dilute ethanol (70%–90%), eau de cologne contains a mixture of citrus oils including oils of lemon, orange, tangerine, bergamot, lime, grapefruit and neroli. It can also contain oils of lavender, rosemary, thyme, petitgrain (orange leaf), and jasmine.
The original Eau de Cologne is a spirit-citrus perfume launched in Cologne in 1709 by Giovanni Maria Farina (1685–1766), an Italian perfume maker from Santa Maria Maggiore Valle Vigezzo, Italy. In 1708, Farina wrote to his brother Jean Baptiste: "I have found a fragrance that reminds me of an Italian spring morning, of mountain daffodils and orange blossoms after the rain". He named his fragrance Eau de Cologne, in honour of his new hometown.